Modern English Period extends from the beginning of the 16th century to the present day. This long period can be subdivided in to early Modern English period and later Modern English period. The early period extends from 1601 to 1700 and the later from 1701 to the present day.
The fall of Constantinople into the hands of the Turks and consequent spread of Greek scholars in the continent, the Renaissance, the Reformation, the invention of the printing press by Caxton in 1476, the discovery of America by Columbus had far-reaching effects and shook the very foundation of Middle English.
By the End of the 16th century, it became universally accepted as the standard of the language.