During and after India’s transition to independence in 1947, Lohia continued to play an active role in its politics. At loggerheads with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on several issues, however, Lohia and other CSP members left the Congress in 1948. He became a member of the Praja Socialist Party upon its formation in 1952 and served as general secretary for a brief period, but internecine conflicts led to his resignation in 1955. Later that year Lohia established a new Socialist Party, for which he became chairman as well as the editor of its journal, Mankind. A spellbinding orator and a passionate and perceptive writer, he advocated for various sociopolitical reforms in his capacity as party leader, including the abolition of the caste system, the adoption of Hindi as India’s national language, and stronger protection of civil liberties. In 1963 Lohia was elected to the Lok Sabha (the lower house of parliament), where he was noted for his sharp criticism of government policies. Although his parliamentary influence was ultimately limited, his progressive views, which he expressed in numerous publications, proved inspirational to many Indians.