Phenoxide ion has the following resonating structures :
Carboxylate ion has the following resonating structures.
(i) Phenoxide ion is a resonance hybrid of structures I to V, where each structure has a contribution of 20% in the resonance hybrid. On the other hand, each of the two contributing structures of carboxylate ion contribute 50% towards the resonance hybrid. Therefore, the carboxylate ion tends to be more stable than the phenoxide ion and hence has higher acidity.
(ii) The negative charge rests on the electronegative O atom in carboxylate ion. The presence of negative charge on an electronegative atom makes the ion more stable. For the same reason RCOO– is more stable than the phenoxide ion where the carbon has negative charge on it. For the above two reasons carboxylate ion is more stable and has higher acidity than phenol.