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How is ‘Discount on Issue of Debentures’ treated in the books of accounts? How will you deal with the ‘Discount on issue of debentures’ when the debentures are to be redeemed in instalments?

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When the debentures are issued at a price below its par value or face value, then it is said that the debentures are issued at discount. The difference between the issue price and the face value of the debenture is regarded as a capital loss. This loss is written off every year till the debentures are redeemed. The loss on the issue of debenture is shown on the Assets side of the Balance Sheet under the heading of Miscellaneous Expenditures.

Accounting Treatment for Discount on Issue of Debentures: At the time of issue of debentures at discount Accounting treatment for discount on  issue of debentures 

At the time of writing off the discount on issue of debentures at the end of each year.

(i) Fixed Instalment Method/Equal Instalment Method : This method is used when debentures are redeemable in lump sum after a specified period of time. In this case an equal amount of discount (loss) is written off in equal instalments over the life of the debenture. The formula for calculating amount of discount written off every year is given below

e.g., if a company has issued 10% debentures of Rs. 12,00,000 at 5% discount redeemable annually by Rs. 2,40,000 each year. The total amount of discount on Rs.12,00,000 debentures @ 5% is Rs. 60,000, i.e., (12,00,000 x 5/100 =Rs. 60,000). The amount of discount to be written off every year is calculated as

(ii) Fluctuating Instalment Method/Variable Instalment Method/ Proportion Method: When debentures are repaid by annuaLdrawings or in instalments, the discount should be written-off in the ratio of debentures outstanding as at the end of each accounting year. The amount of discount, under this method, goes on reducing every year and so this method may also be known as Reducing Instalment Method.

e.g., if a company has issued 10% debentures of Rs. 12,00,000 at 5% discount redeemable annually by Rs. 2,40,000 each year. The total amount of discount on Rs.12,00,000 debentures @ 5% is Rs. 60,000, i.e., (12,00,000 x 5/100 =Rs. 60,000). The amount of discount to be written off every year is calculated as

Hence, the amount of the total discount of’ 60,000 will be written off in the ratio of ,5 : 4 : 3 : 2 :1 i.e.,’ 20,000,’ 16,000,’ 12,000,’ 8,000 and 4,000 respectively.

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