Sarthaks Test
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Explain the "State" in details.

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State, political organization of society, or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government. The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its territory, the area of jurisdiction or geographic boundaries; and finally by its sovereignty. The state consists, most broadly, of the agreement of the individuals on the means whereby disputes are settled in the form of laws. In such countries as the United States, Australia, Nigeria, Mexico, and Brazil, the term state (or a cognate) also refers to political units that are not sovereign themselves but subject to the authority of the larger state, or federal union.
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A state may be defined as a politically organised body of people inhabiting a defined geographical entity with an organized legitimate government.

A state must be free from all forms of external control to exercise its sovereignty within its area of jurisdiction. It must be noted that a state differs from a kingdom and empire. Nigeria is an example of a state, while Owu is a good example of a kingdom and Oyo, an empire. In order for a state to exist, it must have the following features.

  1. Population: The most obvious essential feature of a state is its people. “States where the population shares a general political and social consensus (an agreement) about basic beliefs, have the most stable governments.”
  2. Territory: A state or country or city has certain boundaries. Conflicts can arise between states and countries over where borders should be placed. Boundaries can also be changed due to war, purchase or territory, or negotiations between governments.
  3. Sovereignty: “The key characteristic of a state. Political sovereignty means the state has absolute supreme authority within the boundary of its territory. It can make laws, shape foreign policy, and make its own actions without the approval of a higher authority.
  4. Government: A government “is the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on its citizens.”
  5. Permanence: A state must be relatively permanent, unlike the government which changes from time to time. This permanence makes it possible for a state to develop as it should.
  6. Recognition: For a territory to be called a state, it must be recognized by other states and international organizations that surrounds it. This recognition will hinder any form of violence or war for boundaries and the likes.

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