# Where have all the Goldstone bosons gone

@article{Guralnik2014WhereHA, title={Where have all the Goldstone bosons gone}, author={G. Guralnik and C. Hagen}, journal={Modern Physics Letters A}, year={2014}, volume={29}, pages={1450046} }

According to a commonly held view of spontaneously broken symmetry in gauge theories, troublesome Nambu–Goldstone bosons are effectively eliminated by turning into longitudinal modes of a massive vector meson. This note shows that, this is not in fact, a consistent view of the role of Nambu–Goldstone bosons in such theories. These particles necessarily appear as gauge excitations, whenever they are formulated in a manifestly covariant gauge. The radiation gauge provides therefore the dual… Expand

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