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The Unification of Italy:

During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states. During 1830, Mazzini decided to unite Italy. He had formed a secret society Young Italy to achieve his goal. After earlier failures in 1831 and 1848 king Victor Emmanuel -II took to unify the Italian states through wars.

Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France by Cavour Sardinia-piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian force in 1859. under the leadership of Garibaldi armed volunteers marched into south Italy in 1860 and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the spanish rulers. In 1861, victor Emmanuel-II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

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PROCESS OF UNIFICATION OF ITALY:

  • The unification of Italy is the result of dedication, contribution and effort of three great leaders Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi.
  • During 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had tried to unite Italy. He formed the secret society called Young Italy.  But both the uprising in 1831 and 1848 failed.
  • Even the ruling elites also wanted a unified Italy which would offer economic development and political dominance.
  • The unification of Italy was a result of many wars. Chief Minister Cavour made a tactful diplomatic alliance with France and Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
  • A large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the unification movement.
  • In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicily succeeded to drive out the Spanish rulers with the help of local people.
  • In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as king of United Italy.

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