The Unification of Italy:
During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states. During 1830, Mazzini decided to unite Italy. He had formed a secret society Young Italy to achieve his goal. After earlier failures in 1831 and 1848 king Victor Emmanuel -II took to unify the Italian states through wars.
Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France by Cavour Sardinia-piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian force in 1859. under the leadership of Garibaldi armed volunteers marched into south Italy in 1860 and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the spanish rulers. In 1861, victor Emmanuel-II was proclaimed king of united Italy.