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Discuss the following as a source of human capital formation  

(i) Health infrastructure  

(ii) Expenditure on migration.

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(i) Health infrastructure  

There is a saying “The greatest wealth is health”. The wealth of a country can be increased with the efforts of healthy workforce. Investment in health sector increases efficiency, efficacy and productivity of a nation's workforce. In contrast to an unhealthy person, a healthy person can work better with more efficiency and, consequently, can contribute relatively more to the GDP of the country. Good health and medical facilities not only extends life expectancy but also improves quality and standard of life. Investing in health sector ensures the perennial supply of healthy workforce. Some of the common expenditures incurred in the health sector are on providing better medical facilities, easy availability of life savings drugs, common vaccination, spread of medical knowledge, provision of proper sanitation and clean drinking water, etc. Thus, the expenditure incurred on health is important in building and maintaining a productive work force.  

(ii) Expenditure on migration  

Migration refers to the movement of people from underdeveloped or developing countries to t developed countries in search for better avenues. Migrations contribute to human capital formation as it facilitates the utilization of inactive or underdeveloped skills of an individual. The cost of migration involves cost of transportation, and cost of living at the migrated places. Usually, the cost of migration is very high due to the high cost of transportation and high cost of livelihood in the developed countries. Still, people migrate in search of better job opportunities and handsome salaries. Migration of human capital helps the underdeveloped countries to acquire technical skills, efforts reducing methods and efficient ways of performing tasks. These skills and know-how are transmitted by the migrated people to their home country that not only add to the economic growth and development but also enhance the human capital of the home country. If the gains from migration outweigh the migration costs then it can be inferred that migration leads to better utilization of human capital skills.

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