Sustainable development refers to the achievement of economic development by careful and judicial utilization of the natural resources so that the present generations' needs are fulfilled without compromising that of the future generations'. Aligned with the view of a leading environmental economist, Herman Daly, India has taken the following steps to achieve the aim of sustainable development:
(i) Population Control Measures
India has promoted various measures to arrest population explosion. The various population control measures include spread of awareness and knowledge of birth control measures and literacy.
(ii) Use of Environment Supportive Fuel
As the fuels such as petrol and diesel emit huge amount of carbon dioxide that leads to global warming, so, the Indian government has promoted the use of CNG and LPG. These clean, eco-friendly fuels emit lesser smoke.
(iii) Use of Solar and Wind Energy
India being a moderate country is enriched with sunlight and wind power. These are two free gifts of nature that is non-exhaustible. It solves the problem of economic growth with due focus on sustainable development.
(iv) Recycling and Ban on Plastic Bags
The industrial and household wastes are accumulated on daily basis. There is a need to develop the habit of recycling of waste products in order to sustain the environment. Household waste can be used as manure for organic farming. A very recent step taken by the Indian government is banning the use of plastic bags. This is a very good step as plastic bags do not get decomposed easily and leads to pollution while recycling.
(v) Pollution Tax and Fines
Indian government has taken many steps to control pollution. Some of the measures are regular vehicle checkups, levying pollution tax on the industries emitting smoke. These measures are coupled with huge fines and even imprisonment for the law breakers.
(vi) Use of the Input Efficient Technology
The input efficient methods have been devised that not only increases the production and productivity but also efficiency with which the inputs are used. The efficient use of input, on one hand, leads to lesser exploitation of the natural resources and, on the other hand, enhances the future economic growth prospects of India.