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Explain with examples 

(i) Atomic number, 

(ii) Mass number, 

(iii) Isotopes and 

(iv) Isobars. 

        Give any two uses of isotopes

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(i) Atomic number 

The atomic number of an element is the total number of protons present in the atom of that element. For example, nitrogen has 7 protons in its atom. Thus, the atomic number of nitrogen is 7. 

(ii) Mass number 

The mass number of an element is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons present in the atom of that element. For example, the atom of boron has 5 protons and 6 neutrons. So, the mass number of boron is 5 + 6 = 11. 

(iii) Isotopes 

They are atoms of the same element and have same atomic number but different mass number/atomic mass. For example: Carbon: 6C12 and 6C14 

(iv) Isobars 

They are atoms of different elements having same mass number but different atomic number. For example calcium, atomic number 20 and argon, atomic number 18. The number of electrons in these atoms is different, but the mass number of both these elements is 40. That is, the total number of neutrons is the same in the atoms of this pair of elements. 

Two uses of isotopes are as follows: 

(i) An isotope of uranium is used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. 

(ii) An isotope of cobalt is used in the treatment of cancer.

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