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Describe the path of developmental initiatives taken by Pakistan for its economic development.

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(a) With the aim of economic development, Pakistan adopted the pattern of mixed economy where both private and public sectors coexist  

(b) Pakistan introduced a variety of regulated policy framework for import substitution, industrialization during 1950s and 1960s. This implies producing goods domestically to substitute imports, thereby, discouraging imports and simultaneously encouraging and developing domestic industries.  

(c) In order to protect domestic industries producing consumer goods, policy measure was initiated to create the tariff barriers.  

(d) The introduction of Green Revolution mechanized agriculture leading to the increase in the production of food grains.  

(e) The mechanization of agriculture was followed by the nationalization of capital goods industries in 1970s.  

(f) In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Pakistan shifted its policy orientation by  denationalizing the thrust areas, thereby, encouraging the private sector.  

(g) All these above measures created an environment conducive to initiate the economic reforms that were ultimately initiated in 1988.

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