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Nitration is an example of aromatic electrophilic substitution and its rate depends upon the group already present in the benzene ring. Out of benzene and phenol, which one is more easily nitrated and why?

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Phenol is more easily nitrated than benzene as the presence of —OH group in phenol increases the electron density at ortho and para positions in benzene ring by +R effect. The nitration, being an electrophilic substitution reaction is more facile where the electron density is more.

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