(i) Sample A has more protons compare to electrons. If a neutral atom loses electrons, it gets net positive charge and is known as a cation.
(ii) Isobars are the atoms of different Sample B and C have same mass number (protons + neutrons) but different atomic numbers. Hence, they are a pair of isobars.
(iii) Samples C and D have same atomic number but different mass numbers. Hence, they are a pair of isotopes.