# (a) Tabulate the differences in the characteristics of states of matter. (b) Comment upon the following: rigidity

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(a) Tabulate the differences in the characteristics of states of matter.

(b) Comment upon the following: rigidity, compressibility, fluidity, filling a gas container, shape, kinetic energy, and density.

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(a) The differences in the characteristics of states of matter are given in the following table.

 S.No. Solids Liquids Gases 1 Definite shape and volume. No definite shape. Liquids attain the shape of the vessel in which they are kept. Gases have neither a definite shape nor a definite volume. 2 Incompressible Compressible to a small extent. Highly compressible. 3 There is little space between the particles of a solid. These particles have a greater space between them. The space between gas particles is the greatest. 4 These particles attract each other very strongly. The force of attraction between liquid particles is less than solid particles. The force of attraction is least between gaseous particles. 5 Particles of solid cannot move freely. These particles move freely. Gaseous particles are in a continuous, random motion.

(b) (i) Rigidity:  The property due to which an object retains its shape and size is known as rigidity. Solids are rigid whereas liquids and gases are not.

(ii) Compressibility is the property due to which a substance can be compressed, i.e., its volume can be decreased. Gases are compressible whereas solids and liquids are not.

(iii) Fluidity: The property due to which a substance tends to flow is called fluidity. Gases and liquids are fluids, solids are not.

(iv) Filling a gas container: A gas can be filled in a gas container by compressing it under high pressure. The property of compressibility (of gases) helps them in this regard.

(v) Shape: The property of having a definite geometry is called shape of a particular substance. Solids have a definite shape whereas gases and liquids do not have.

(vi) Kinetic energy: The energy possessed by an object or by the molecules of an object due to its state of motion is called kinetic energy. Molecules of gases posses highest kinetic energy. Increasing the temperature also increases the kinetic energy of a substance (or its molecules).

(vii) Density: The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density.

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(a) The differences in the characteristics of states of matter are given in the following table. b)Rigidity can be expressed as the tendency of matter to resist a change in shape.

Compressibility is the ability to be reduced to a lower volume when force is applied.

Fluidity is the ability to flow.

By filling a gas container we mean the attainment of shape of the container by gas.

Shape defines a definite boundary.

Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a particle due to its motion.

Density is mass per unit volume.