(i) Due to internal heat of the earth, the currents of the semi-molten rocks begin to move towards the crust and tear it apart dividing it into large fragments called lithospheric or tectonic plates. There are seven such major plates namely, South America, North America, Pacific, Indo–Australian, Eurasian, African and Antarctic.
(ii) Gondwana land is the name given to the hypothetical ‘super-continent’ located in Southern hemisphere. Gondwana Land included South America, part of Africa (south Africa including Madagascar), part of Asia (India, Arabia, Malaya), Australia and Antarctica, prior to its breakup under the forces causing continental-drift.
(iii) The ‘Bhabar’ is that narrow belt of the plain which is covered with pebbles and lies along the foothills of the Shiwaliks from the Indus to the Teesta. This belt is laid down by numerous streams descending down the hills.
(iv) The three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south are:
(a) The northernmost range which is known as the great Himalayas or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri.
(b) The range lying to the south of the Himadri which is known as Himachal or the lesser Himalaya.
(c) The outermost range of the Himalayas which is known as the Shiwaliks. These are the foothill ranges and represent the southernmost division of the Himalayas.
(v) Malwa plateau or Central Highland