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Answer the following questions briefly. 

(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981? 

(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth. 

(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate. 

(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

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(i) The family planning programme helped in increasing the awareness about the benefits of smaller family size. This helped in reducing the rate of population growth in India since 1981. 

(ii) Birth rate, death rate and migration are the major components of population growth. A higher birth rate; coupled with a lower death rate leads to population growth. International migration can lead to population growth of more number of people are coming from other countries than the number of people going outside the country. 

(iii) Age Structure: Relative percentage of various age groups in the population is called age structure of the population. Age group is generally divided into children (upto 14 years), working age (15 – 59 years) and aged (60 years and above). 

Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1000 persons is called death rate. 

Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1000 persons is called birth rate. 

(iv) Migration within the country is called internal migration, while that between two countries is called international migration. Internal migration has no change on population size but it changes the population composition of a particular area. International migration can lead to a growth or degrowth in population; depending on the degree of immigration and emigration

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