They were well-to-do peasants. By 1927-28 the towns of Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. Kulaks were thought to be partly responsible for this. Also to develop modern farms and run them along industrial lines the Party under the leadership of Stalin thought it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks.
(ii) The Duma
During 1905 Revolution, the Tsar allowed the creation of an elected consultative parliament in Russia. This elected consultative parliament in Russia was called Duma.
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930
During Russian revolution of 1905, the February Revolution of 1917, the women workers also took part in shaping the future of Russia. Women workers made up to 31% of the factory labour force by 1914, but were paid less than men.
Women workers had not only to work in factories but also, had to look after their families and children. They were also very active in all affairs of the country. They often inspired their male co-workers. For instance, let us take the incidence of Marfa Vasileva, a female worker in the Loverz Telephone Factory who raised her voice against the rising prices and the highhandedness of the factory owners and also organized a successful strike. The example of Marfa
Vasilva was followed by other women workers and they did not sit idle till they established a socialistic state in Russia.
(iv) The Liberals
The Liberals in Russia were those persons who wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They wanted to safe-guard the rights of individuals against the governments. They opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They agreed a representative, elected parliamentary government subject to laws. They wanted an independent judiciary but the liberals did not believe in Universal Adult Franchise. They also did not want the voting right of women.
(v) Stalin’s collectivization programme
By 1927-28 the towns in Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. Stalin, who was the leader of the party at that time, investigated the causes of this problem and introduced some emergency measures accordingly. Stalin’s collectivization programme in 1929 was one of these measures. Under this programme the party forced all farmers to cultivate in collective farms (Kolkhoz). The profit or the produce from a collective farm was shared by the farmers worked on it. However, those farmers who resisted collectivization were severely punished. They did not want to work in collective farms for a variety of reasons. Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such cultivators unsympathetically.
In spite of Stalin’s collectivization programme, production did not increase immediately. In fact the bad harvests of 1930-33 led to one of the worst famines in the Soviet History.