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Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people: 

 Shifting cultivators 

 Nomadic and pastoralist communities 

 Firms trading in timber/forest produce 

 Plantation owners 

 Kings/British officials engaged in shikar

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Shifting cultivators 

New forest laws banned shifting cultivation. For shifting cultivators, it was devastating because there was a problem for their survival. Many of them were forced to migrate to take up some other occupations. Many others were forced to work in the tea plantations. 

Nomadic and pastoralist communities 

Grazing of animals was banned under the new forest laws. It made the life of pastoralist communities difficult. Herds of animals were their only source of livelihood. The nomadic communities were declared as criminal communities. This made their life miserable because they could no longer move freely. 

Firms trading in timber/forest produce 

Because of huge demand of timber, it was boon for the timber merchants. They must have seen good growth in their incomes. 

Plantation owners 

Land was given at cheaper rates to the plantation owners. Labour was also made available to them at very low wages. Moreover, new policies were made which prevented the workers from going back to their home villages. It was a win-win situation for the plantation owner. 

Kings/British officials engaged in shikar 

Killing of ferocious animals; like tiger or wolves was monetarily rewarded. Moreover, hunting was viewed as a sign of bravely and valour. The Kings and British officials must have enjoyed the new found honour in the society.

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