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Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists: 

 Waste Land rules 

 Forest Acts 

 Criminal Tribes Act 

 Grazing Tax

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Waste Land rules 

This law was brought to take control of the land which was not under cultivation. The surplus land could be used to increase the area under cultivation and also to increase land revenue. This Rule shrunk the pastureland which was earlier available. 

Forest Acts 

These Acts were introduced to gain control of those forests which had commercially important trees. Moreover, these acts were also utilised to collect some revenue from the pastoralists. The movement of pastoralists was severely restricted because of new Forest Acts. Instead of planning their movement according to the season, the pastoralists now had to move according to the new rules.

Criminal Tribes Act 

This Act was introduced to force the nomadic tribes to a settled life. It was difficult to collect taxes from the nomadic people because they did not have permanent address. This Act tarnished the image of nomadic tribes. This disturbed their relationship with peasants and other mainstream communities. It also badly affected their earnings. 

Grazing Tax 

Grazing Tax was introduced in order to widen the tax net. This tax put a new burden on the pastoralists.

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