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Explain any four reasons for the dominance of the Congress Party in the first three General Elections.

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1. Legacy of national movement: The Congress party had received a very big and rich heritage from national movement. The legacy was provided such a direction by the party, so that it can progress politically. Party leaders like Nehru and Shastri spent years in jail and suffered torture which made them popular.

2. Grassroot organization: Congress was a grassroot organization’ present during the independence. Its organizational structure was based on internal democracy. This democracy helped the party in resolving its internal conflicts and reinforced uniformity.

3. Adjustments according to local conditions: Congress party became influential because it was able to make adjustment according to local conditions. Former Zamindari aristocratism contested for power in congress. Party’s internal democratic set up and advantages of election helped Congress to make necessary adjustments in line with changes in local power balance.

4. Increase in the supporters: With the increase in the developmental role of the State, the resources distributed to the party members also started to grow. The increase in the number of resources and opportunities also led to increase in the capability of Congress to make among its members administrative adjustment of the entire country. The party grew above the gifts of hierarchical order which gave it political and economic resources to choose new supporters for electoral benefit.

5. ‘The first-past-the post’ method also played a vital role in the Congress’ dominance. In this method, the party that gets more votes than others tends to get much more than its proportional share. That is exactly what worked in favour of the Congress. If we add up the votes of all the non-Congress candidates it was more than the votes of the Congress. But the non-Congress votes were divided between different rival parties and candidates. So, the Congress was still way ahead of the opposition and managed to win.

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