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Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following. 

(a) Preparation of soil 

(b) Sowing 

(c) Weeding 

(d) Threshing

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(a) Preparation of soil is the first step before growing of crop. It helps to turn the soil and loosen it to allow the roots to penetrate deep into it. The loosening of the soil helps in the growth of several soil microbes, earthworms etc., which enrich the soil with humus and other essential nutrients. The process of turning and loosening is called ploughing. This is done using a plough, hoe and cultivators. 

(b) Sowing is the process of putting the seeds into the soil for growing crops. We need to use quality seeds for sowing. Sowing is done manually using mechanical equipment like Seed Drill. Seeds of few plants like rice are first grown in a separate area and then transplanted in the fields. 

(c) In a field many other undesirable plants may grow along with the crop. These undesirable plants are called weeds. Farmers use many ways to remove weeds. Methods to control weeds are: tilling before sowing of crops, physical removal of weeds by uprooting or cutting them close to the ground, using certain chemicals called weedicides etc. 

(d) Threshing is the process of separating grains or seeds from chaff. It is done after harvesting the crop. It is usually carried out with the help of a machine known as 'Combine'. This machine is a combined harvester and thresher. It harvests plants as well as cleans grains.

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