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Explain the role of tapetum in the formation pollen-grain wall.

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Tapetum is the innermost layer of the microsporangium. It provides nourishment to the developing pollen grains. During microsporogenesis, the cells of tapetum produce various enzymes, hormones, amino acids, and other nutritious material required for the development of pollen grains. It also produces the exine layer of the pollen grains, which is composed of the sporopollenin.

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