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Name important defence mechanisms in plants against herbivory.

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Several plants have evolved various mechanisms both morphological and chemical to protect themselves against herbivory.
Morphological defence mechanisms:

  •  Cactus leaves (Opuntia) are modified into sharp spines (thorns) to deter herbivores from feeding on them.
  •  Sharp thorns along with leaves are present in Acacia to deter herbivores.
  •  In some plants, the margins of their leaves are spiny or have sharp edges that prevent herbivores from feeding on them.

Chemical defence mechanisms:

  •  All parts of Calotropis weeds contain toxic cardiac glycosides, which can prove to be fatal if ingested by herbivores.
  •  Chemical substances such as nicotine, caffeine, quinine, and opium are produced in plants as a part of self-defence.

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