Problems faced by the tribal community: Alienation from forest land: Many tribes engage in primary agriculture, food-gathering and hunting hence they are heavily dependent on the produce of the forest. Therefore, when outsiders exploit the tribal land and its resources, the natural eco-cycle and the tribal life dependent on it is greatly disturbed. Industrialization and construction of water reservoirs resulted in the further acquisition of land by the State.
Bonded labour: Though Bonded labour is banned by Indian Law, it still prevails in some tribal areas. Bonded labour is considered to be a serious problem, which started due to rampant poverty and lack of stable income among the tribals. In fact, land alienation, indebtedness, bonded labour, and poverty are problems that exist hand-in-hand. However, due to the efforts of the government and voluntary organizations, many tribals are being freed from this problem.
Shifting cultivation: Shifting cultivation among tribals is a problem since it involves largescale deforestation and soil erosion. Shifting cultivation is known by various names such as Jhum, Khallu, and Podu.
Illiteracy: Illiteracy among tribal is a major hindrance towards their development. School hours often clash with agricultural and wageearning activities of children. Children are looked upon as economic assets and are thus expected to supplement their parents’ income Also, schools are often not located in the vicinity of tribal settlements. The formal courses in schools are not taught in tribal languages, so children lose interest in learning, leading to a high dropout rate.