(i) Introduction of the new education system: The British set up a system of education that had a far-reaching impact on Indian society. The medium of instruction in high school now became English. It became the common language of communication among the learned people. Schools and colleges were open to all individuals, irrespective of caste, creed, gender, etc.
The Indian Universities Act, 1856, enabled the establishment of the first universities in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras. The content of education was secular – which included subjects like Mathematics, Science, Philosophy, Sociology, History, etc. This led to the rise of a new class of intelligentsia, who were of Indian origin but trained in ‘Western’ values customs, and practices. Some of them played a significant role in the reform movements. New values like rationality, equality, social justice, secular approach, and individualism gained firmer ground.
(ii) Introduction of new administration system: The British set in place new systems of administration. They started the system of services like the Economic Service, Education Service, Revenue Service, and Administrative Service. A new judiciary system was created, which took into consideration the earlier legal traditions of the Indian communities.
However, its implementation was carried out on a secular basis; each individual was judged on an equal basis, irrespective of one’s caste and creed. The authority of feudal lords and zamindars was abolished.
The Indian Councils Act, The Indian High Court Act, and The Indian Civil Service Act of 1861 all led to major changes in the Executive, Legislative and Judicial administration of India.
(iii) Introduction of new economic system: The economic system got transformed by industrial growth and its twin process of urbanization. Caste-based skills and occupations and, social relationships were gradually changing due to the impact of a changing economy and the rise of factories. The emergence of economic and educated classes was on the rise. New Revenue systems were started by the British in different parts of India which affected the peasants adversely.
(iv) Introduction of Transport and Communication: Systems of railways and roadways, and, Post and Telegraph offices were set up through the length and breadth of the country. These were ways in which it became possible to reach people in all parts of the country and access resources. In 1869, the Suez Canal was opened to promote trade interests. Development of transportation and communication led to an increase in market outlets for Indian raw materials.
(v) Nationalist Movement: Use of English as a common language of communication among. the educated elite played a significant role in networking, the nationalist movement received momentum. The awakening among the Indian masses against alien rule resulted in the call for the expulsion of the British from India and to fight for independence. The 19th century saw the emergence of the Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhi as the key figure in the call for independence.