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Differentiate between:
(a) Hypocotyl and epicotyl,
(b) Coleoptile and coleorhiza,
(c) Integument and testa,
(d) Perisperm and pericarp.

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(a) The part of embryonic axis between the radicle and the point of attachment of cotyledons is called hypocotyl. The part of embryonic axis between the plumule and the point of the attachment of cotylendons is called epicotyl.
(b) In monocot seds, the radicle is covered by a protective sheath called coleorhiza whereas plumule is surrounded by a conical protective sheath , called coleoptile.
(c ) Integument is the covering of ovule whereas testa is the covering of seed. However, the outer integument of ovule is converted into testa of seed.
(d) After fertilization , the wall of ovary is tranformed into wall of fruit which is called pericap. The ovule is tranformed into seed, in which the nucellus some times remains persistent as perisperm. Thus, the perisperm lies below the testa and tegmen.

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