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Human Brain

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  • The brain is the main controlling part of the nervous system and is safely located in the cranial cavity. 
  • The brain is covered by protective layers called the Meninges. 
  • Cavities present in various parts of the brain are called ventricles. The ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. 
  • This fluid supplies nutrients to the brain and also protects it from shock.
  • The brain of an adult human weighs about 1300 -1400 grams and consists of approximately 100 million neurons. 
  • The left side of our brain controls the right side of our body and right side of our brain controls left side of the body. 
  • In addition, the left side of the brain controls our speech and conversation, writing, logical thinking etc., whereas the right side controls artistic abilities.

Human brain is made up of following parts:

(a) Cerebrum:

  • This is the largest part of the brain and consists of two cerebral hemispheres. These hemispheres are joined with each other with the help of tough fibres and nerve tracts. 
  • The cerebrum occupies two-thirds of the brain. Hence, it is also called as large brain.
  • Its surface has deep, irregular ridges and grooves which are called convolutions, convolution increases the surface area of the cerebrum and therefore a large number of nerve cells can be accommodated.

(b) Cerebellum:

  • This is the smaller part of the brain situated below the cerebrum at the back of the cranial cavity. 
  • Its surface shows shallow grooves instead of deep convolutions.

(c) Medulla Oblongata:

  • This is the hind-most part of the brain. 
  • There are two triangular swollen structures called pyramids on the upper side of medulla oblongata.
  • The medulla oblongata continues downwards the spinal cord.

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