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Under what conditions is total internal reflection possible? Explain it with a suitable example. Define critical angle of incidence and obtain an expression for it.

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Conditions for total internal reflection : 

i. The light ray must travel from denser medium to rarer medium. 

ii. The angle of incidence in the denser medium must be greater than critical angle for the given pair of media.

Total internal reflection in optical fibre : 

iii. Consider an optical fibre made up of core of refractive index n1 and cladding of refractive index n2 such that, n1 > n2.

iv. When a ray of light is incident from a core (denser medium), the refracted ray is bent away from the normal.

v. At a particular angle of incidence ic in the denser medium, the corresponding angle of refraction in the rarer medium is 90°.

vi. For angles of incidence greater than ic, the angle of refraction become larger than 90° and the ray does not enter into rarer medium at all but is reflected totally into the denser medium as shown in figure.

critical angle of incidence and obtain an expression :

i. Critical angle for a pair of refracting media can be defined as that angle of incidence in the denser medium for which the angle of refraction in the rarer medium is 90°.

ii. Let n be the relative refractive index of denser medium with respect to the rarer.

iii. Then, according to Snell’s law,

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