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The autonomous nervous system regulates involuntary functions of the body and can be subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system. Both of these systems control the same group of  body functions, but have opposite effects on the function they regulate. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for intense physical activity like the fight-or-flight response. The parasympathetic nervous system has the opposite effect and relaxes the body and inhibits or slows many high energy functions. Which of  the following involuntary effects in the body are brought about by the sympathetic nervous system during a fight-or-flight situation?

i.  Increased salivation

ii. Increased digestion

iii. Loss of bowel and bladder control

iv. Body shivering

v. Crying

vi. Pupil dilation

(A) i, ii and vi

(B) i, iv and v

(C) iii, iv and vi

(D)  iii and v

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Answer (C)

The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for an emergency situation. It diverts the blood flow to the organs which are involved in immediate action. Sympathetic nervous system inhibits secretion of saliva, decreases secretion of intestinal juices as well as gastric juice, slows down peristalsis, dilates pupil, relaxes urinary bladder and increases blood flow to skeletal muscles, brain and liver. Crying is due to parasympathetic action

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