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Suggest three contraceptive methods to control the size of human population which is essential for the health and prosperity of a country. State the basic principle involved in each.

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The methods of contraception are:
(i) Barrier method or mechanical method (Condom/Diaphragm): Prevents the meeting of sperms and ova.
(ii) Chemical method (Oral pills): Changes the hormonal balance of the female partner so that the eggs are not released.
(iii) Surgical method: The vas deferens in males is blocked (vasectomy) or the fallopian tube (oviduct) in females (tubectomy) is blocked to prevent the transfer of sperms or egg and hence no fertilisation takes place.

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