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Directions: The critical reasoning question is based on a short argument, a set of arguments, or a plan of action. For each question, select the best answer of the choices given and explain why the chosen answer is the right fit.

During an ongoing conversation between Harry and Rusky, Harry said, “The definition of truth and falsehood lies strictly outside our general subject, namely the analysis of mind. From the psychological standpoint, there may be different kinds of belief, and different degrees of certainty, but there cannot be any purely psychological means of distinguishing between true and false beliefs.”

To this Rusky replied, “A belief is rendered true or false by relation to a fact, which may lie outside the experience of the person entertaining the belief. Truth and falsehood, except in the case of beliefs about our own minds, depend upon the relations of mental occurrences to outside things, and thus take us beyond the analysis of mental occurrences as they are in themselves.”

What could be the viewpoint of Rusky while replying to Harry?


1. truth and falsehood is absolute
2. truth and falsehood is not driven by individual beliefs
3. truth and falsehood is limited to the mind of a single individual only
4. factual verification of beliefs is the testimony to their true or false nature

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : factual verification of beliefs is the testimony to their true or false nature

Option 1 may not be true in all the cases, especially when there is no factual co-relation for truth and falsehood.
Therefore, this cannot be a valid viewpoint of Rusky.

Option 2 negates the statement of Rusky itself.
Therefore, this cannot be a valid viewpoint.

The case presented in option 3 may not be correct as universal facts might lead to universal truths and falsehoods (thus proving that truth and falsehood are not limited to one single individual).
Therefore, this cannot be a valid viewpoint.

Option 4 is essentially deduced from the lines: A belief is rendered true or false by relation to a fact, which may lie outside the experience of the person entertaining the belief.

This was the first line uttered by Rusky, therefore option 4 is the valid viewpoint of Rusky while replying to Harry.

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