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Which of the following are considered as Non-Volatile Memories?

1. ROM

2. Flash Memory

3. F-RAM

4. D-RAM

5. EVMs (Electronic Voting Machines)

Choose the correct option

1. 1 & 5 only
2. 1, 2, 4 & 5 only
3. 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5
4. 1, 2, 3 & 5 only

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : 1, 2, 3 & 5 only

Non-volatile memory:

  • NVM or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled (turned off and back on).
  • It is a type of computer memory that has the capability to hold saved data even if the power is turned off.
  • Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory, flash memory, ferroelectric RAM, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disk drives, floppy disks, and magnetic tape, optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards.

ROM- ROM is an example of non-volatile memory. ROM is called non volatile because it is permanent memory. ROM that is read only memory is non volatile because all the data in it doesn't get erased after shutting down the computer and restarting it. 

Flash memory- Flash memory is a type of erasable read-only memory (EEPROM) that clears and rewrites data in chunks for fast, energy-efficient access and rewriting. Flash memory, or flash storage, is non-volatile, which means it remains viable even without an active power source.

F-RAM- FRAM is a non-volatile storage memory that retains its data even after the power is turned off. 

EVMs (Electronic Voting Machines)- Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) introduced in India in 1982 allow the citizens to vote electronically and ease the job of the Election Commission of India in counting the votes. Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) is an example of non-volatile memory.

Hence, the correct answer is 1, 2, 3 & 5 only.

Volatile memory:

  • Volatile memory is the memory that can not be retrieved after having been power cycled.
  • Examples of volatile memory include RAM.

D-RAM- DRAM stands for “dynamic random access memory,” and it's a specific type of RAM (random access memory). FRAM is a nonvolatile storage memory that retains its data even after the power is turned off. However, similar to commonly used DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) found in personal computers, workstations, and non-handheld game-consoles, FRAM requires a memory restore after each read.

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