Correct Answer - Option 2 : 1854
Modern cotton textile mill in Maharastra:
Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company was the first cotton mill to be established in Bombay, India, on 7 July 1854 at Tardeo by Cowaszee Nanabhoy Davar (1815-73) and his associates.
- The Company was designed by Sir William Fairbaim.
- This mill began production on 7 February 1856 under the supervision of British engineers and skilled cotton operatives.
- The first cotton mill in India was established in 1818 at Fort Gloster near Kolkata but was a commercial failure.
- The second cotton mill in India was established by KGN Daber in 1854 and was named Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company.
- This mill is said to mark the true foundation of the modern cotton industry in India.
- In Ahmedabad - also referred to as the ‘Manchester of India’ - the opening of Shahpur mill in 1861 and Calico mill in 1863 marked the city’s spectacular rise as one of the world’s prime cotton manufacturing locales.
However, the real expansion of the cotton textile industry in India took place in the 1870s.
- During this period, the number of mills rose to 47 - of which over 60 % were in Mumbai.
- The First and Second World Wars, the Swadeshi Movement, and the grant of fiscal protection rapidly propelled the growth of this industry.
- As a result, the number of mills increased from 334 in 1926 to 389 in 1939, and to 417 in 1945.
- Production of cotton cloth also increased from 4,012 million yards in 1939 - 40 to 4,726 million in 1945 - 46.
Hence, the correct answer is 1854, the year when the modern cotton textile mill was first of all established in Maharashtra.