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After Gupta dynasty, in the middle of Sixth Century AD, ______ established supremacy over Punjab
1. Pallavas
2. Gujarat
3. Kadambas
4. Huns

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Huns

The correct answer is Huns.

  • Huns were primitive pastoralists owing herds of cattle and horses but knowing nothing about agriculture.
  • They roamed in the Steppe in search of pasture and water.
  • From the Oxus, the white Huns came into Afghanistan, destroyed the local power, and, after establishing themselves there, began to pour into India in 458 AD.
  • However, Skandagupta who was at the time ruling in Northern India checkmated them effectively.
  • Whenever the Gupta empire's resistance collapsed the Huns occupied the areas up to Central India and Malwa about 500 AD.
  • There were two powerful Hun rulers Toramana and his son Mihirkula.
  • They ruled during 500-530 AD.
  • Mihirkula, a Shaivite, was a persecutor of Buddhism.
  • In 530 AD, the Huns were uprooted by Yashodarmana of Mandasaur.

  •  Pallavas:
    • The Pallavas were one of the greatest dynasties of South India.
    • They played a significant role in the political, social, and cultural history of South India.
    • There is controversy regarding the origin of Pallavas.
    • Possibly Pallavas were a local tribe who established their authority in the Tondaimandalam or the land of creepers.
    • They were orthodox Brahmanical Hindus and their Capital was Kanchi.
    • Both Chalukyas and Pallavas tried to establish their supremacy over land between Krishna and Tungabhadra.
    • Pallava king Narshimhavarman(630-668 AD) occupied Chalukyan capital Vatapi in about 642 AD and assumed the title Vatapikonda i.e. Conqueror of Vatapi.
    • Pallavas were instrumental in spreading Indian Culture in South-East Asia.
    • Till the 8th Century AD, Pallava's influence was predominant in Cambodia.
    • The Pallava type of Shikara is to be found in the temples of Java, Cambodia, and Annam.
  • Kadambas:
    • The Kadamba Dynasty (345 - 525 CE) was a primeval majestic dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Vaijayanti or Banavasi in the present-day Uttara Kannada district.
    • Kadamba dynasty was founded by Mayurasharma in 345 AD.
    • Their ancestors were said to have migrated from the foothills of the Himalayas.
    • Kakusthavarma the successor of this dynasty was a powerful ruler. 
    • The decline of the Satavahana power in the Deccan was followed by the rule of many lesser dynasties like the Chutus, the Abhiras, and the Ikshvakus during the third century A.D.
    • Kadamba dynasty is important because it was the first indigenous dynasty to use Kannada at an administrative level.
    • Kadambas kept paying nominal allegiance to other major power brokers of Deccan like Yadavas and Hoysalas of Dorasamudra and thus maintained their independence. 

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