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Consider the following psychological tests:

(1) Raven's Progressive Matrices, (2) Children's Apperception Test, (3) The Muller-Lyer Illusion

1. (1) is Intelligence Test, (2) and (3) are Personality Tests
2. (1) is Perceptual Process Test, (2) is Personality and (3) is Interest Inventory
3. (1) is Memory Test, (2) is Emotional Stability Test and (3) is Lie Detection Test
4. (1) Is Intelligence Test, (2) is Personality Test and (3) is Perceptual Process Test

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : (1) Is Intelligence Test, (2) is Personality Test and (3) is Perceptual Process Test

Raven's Progressive Matrices

  • The Raven Progressive Matrices test is a widely used intelligence test in many research and applied settings. In each test item, one is asked to find the missing pattern in a series. Each set of test questions within the Raven Matrices test progressively harder for the child. As a result of the increasing difficulty, g greater cognitive capacity is needed to encode and analyze questions from the Raven Test.
  • The Raven’s Progressive Matrices is administered as a nonverbal group test. It is typically a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence. Many patterns are presented in the form of a 6×6, 4×4, 3×3, or 2×2 matrix, giving the test its name. All of the questions on the Raven’s progressives consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. 

Children's Apperception Test

  • The Children's Apperception Test (CAT) is a projective personality test used to assess individual variations in children's responses to standardized stimuli presented in the form of pictures of animals or humans in common social situations.
  • In CAT test, picture cards are given to children to reveal and evaluate their interests.
  • Children’s observation power, pattern of thoughts, etc are recognized while they give responses to those cards.
  • The CAT Cards substitute 'animals for people' by assuming that the children would identify the pictures of animal easily than that of people and would give significant responses.
  • Some of the dimensions of personality include level of reality testing and judgment, control and regulation of drives, defences, conflicts, and level of autonomy.

The Muller-Lyer Illusion

  • The Muller-Lyer illusion is a well-known optical illusion in which two lines of the same length appear to be of different lengths. 
  • The Müller-Lyer effect, the apparent difference in the length of a line as the result of its adornment with arrowheads or arrow tails, is the best known and most controversial of the classical geometrical illusions.
  • By sampling a range-image database of natural scenes, we show that the perceptual effects elicited by the MüllerLyer stimulus and its major variants are correctly predicted by the probability distributions of the possible physical sources underlying the relevant retinal images.
  • These results support the conclusion that the Müller-Lyer illusion is a manifestation of the probabilistic strategy of visual processing that has evolved to contend with the uncertain provenance of retinal stimuli.

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