Correct Answer - Option 3 : Man
Aristotle the legendary Greek philosopher said, “Man is by nature a social animal, an individual who is unsocial naturally and not accidentally is either beneath our notice or more than human.
Socrates said, man is a social animal, and being social for man is both natural as well as necessary. There are other animals, who also have an organized life, but the social life of man is different from, them. Behaviour among animals is instinctive and dies with the animal but along men, behaviour is learned and passed on from one generation to another. This aspect is distinctive of man and distinguishes him from other animals.
- This characteristic binds all men together to behave similarly. They form an aggregate of people who lead a similar way of life and there is also a similarity in their behaviour and other activities.
- It is from this aspect that Herskovits has defined society: "Society is an organized, interacting aggregate of individuals who follow a given way of life." In simple words, it can be said " society is composed of people. Man studies himself as a member of this aggregate of people that we call society.
Comte characterizes society in terms of "social statics" and "social dynamics", referring to social stability as well as social changes.
The necessity for a man to live in society:
- Man has his needs and he chooses to meet these needs by himself. He can meet them while being a member of society or while living in society. The meeting of those needs is conditioned by the patterns of requirements and behaviour that we can call culture.
- From the very beginning, i.e., from birth itself, man needs the support of others. Initially, he is dependent upon others who help him in social and physical upbringing. His overall growth and development are provided within and by the organized social life. This is where society has its basic relevance. Though society extends and plays this role throughout the life of man.
- Society provides the understanding knowledge and exposure to a man about his environment. It is in society that man learns to behave, to act, to respond, and to play his requisite role for his environment and for the society of which he is a member. All these factors do not work independently of each other. They have a cumulative effect.
However, each factor has its own significance. These elements contribute towards continuity and change and the proper functioning of society.