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Which constitutional amendment established the Panchayati Raj in India?
1. 22nd Amendment
2. 75th Amendment
3. 65th Amendment
4. 73rd Amendment

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : 73rd Amendment

The correct answer is 73rd Amendment.

  • The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 has added a new part IX consisting of 16 Articles and the Eleventh Schedule to the Constitution.
  • The 73rd Amendment envisages the Gram Sabha as the foundation of the Panchayat Raj System to perform functions and powers entrusted to it by the State Legislatures.
  • The amendment provides for a three-tier Panchayat Raj System at the village, intermediate, and district levels.
  • ​Salient features of this Act:
    • Gram Sabha (Article 243A):
      • ​A body of all persons registered in the electoral roll of that Panchayat.
    • Three-Tier System (Article 243B):
      • Panchayat at the village, intermediate, and district level.
    • Election of members and chairpersons are given under Article 243B.
    • Reservation of seats for SC/ST is provided at all three levels under Article 243D.
    • The duration of Panchayats is given under Article 243C, it is constituted for five years.
    • Grounds of disqualification are given under Article 243F.
    • Powers, authorities, and responsibilities are given in Article 243G and enlisted in the 11th schedule of the constitution.
    • State Election Commission (243K) for superintendence, control, and direction of the election in Panchayats.

  • Balwant Rai Mehta Committee was the first to recommend a three-tier structure for Panchayati Raj Institutions in India.
  • L.M. Singhvi Committee recommended granting constitutional status to Panchayati Raj Institutions. 

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