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The test conducted on foundation soil gives SPT value; N ≤ 5 and density index, ID < 20, the foundation will fail in
1. General shear
2. Local shear
3. Punching shear
4. Sinking shear

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Local shear

Concept-

General Shear Failure

  • This type of failure is seen in dense and stiff soil.
  • Continuous, well-defined, and distinct failure surface develops between the edge of footing and ground surface.
  • Dense or stiff soil that undergoes low compressibility experiences this failure.
  • General shear failure is accompanied by low strain (< 5 %) in soil with considerable φ (φ > 36o) and large N (N > 30) having high relative density (I> 70%).

Local Shear Failure

  • This type of failure is seen in relatively loose and soft soil.
  • Significant compression of soil below the footing and partial development of plastic equilibrium is observed.
  • Failure is not sudden and there is no tilting of footing.
  • Local shear failure is accompanied by large strain (> 10 to 20 %) in soil with considerably low (< 28 ֯) and low N (N < 5) having low relative density (ID <  20 %).

Punching Shear Failure

  • This type of failure is seen in loose and soft soil and at deeper elevations.
  • This type of failure occurs in soil with very high compressibility.

 

Strain

Φ value

N value

Id

General Shear Failure

Low (< 5 %)

> 36˚

High (> 30)

> 70%

Local Shear Failure

Large (>10 -20 %)

< 26˚

Low (< 5)

< 20%

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