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The tendency of material to fracture without appreciable deformation is called ______.
1. Plasticity
2. Stiffness
3. Brittleness
4. Toughness

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Brittleness

Explanation:

Brittleness: 

The property of a material by which it cannot be drawn out by tension into a smaller section is called brittleness. A brittle material fails instantly under the load without any significant deformation. E.g. cast iron, concrete, glass, etc.

Plasticity:

Plasticity is a mechanical property of materials that shows the ability to deform under stress without breaking while retaining the deformed shape after the load is lifted. Metals with higher plasticity are better for forming. E.g. aluminium, copper etc.

Stiffness: 

Stiffness is expressed as Young’s modulus, also known as the modulus of elasticity. As one of the primary mechanical properties of materials, it defines the relationship between stress and strain. The bigger its value, the stiffer the material. Stiff material does not compress nor elongates easily.

Toughness: 

A tough material can take hard blows without rupturing. Toughness is often defined as a material’s ability to absorb energy without cracking. It is a combination of strength and plasticity.​

Hardness:

High-hardness values show that a material resists localized pressures. In simple terms, hard material is not easy to scrape or punctuate with lasting marks (plastic deformation).

Fatigue Strength:

It expresses a material’s ability to withstand cyclic stresses.

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