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Which one of the following materials is not an allotrope of carbon ?
1. Diamond
2. Graphene
3. Fly ash
4. Fullerene

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Fly ash

The correct answer is Fly ash.

  • Fly ash is a byproduct of burning pulverized coal in electric power generating plants. 
  • Fly ash utilization, especially in concrete, has significant environmental benefits including:
    • Increasing the life of concrete roads and structures by improving concrete durability
    • Net reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas and other adverse air emissions when fly ash is used to replace or displace manufactured cement
    • Reduction in the amount of coal combustion products that must be disposed of in landfills
  • Allotropy is the existence of a chemical element in two or more forms, which may differ in the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids.
  • Allotropes of the carbon atom are diamond, graphite, graphene, and buckminsterfullerene.

  • Diamond
    • Diamond has a tetrahedral structure.
    • Each carbon atom is connected to four other carbon atoms by a covalent bond to form a giant crystal lattice.
    • Because of its tetrahedral structure, diamond is one of the hardest known materials.
    • It has a high refractive index, light is reflected internally and hence it sparkles.
  • ​​Graphene:
    • It is a single-layer compound extracted from graphite.
    • In its hexagonal lattice, each carbon is bonded with three others, leaving a spare electron.
    • Because of its spare electron graphene is an excellent conductor of electricity and heat
    • It’s the thinnest, lightest, strongest, and most stretchy material that has ever been created
  • Fullerene:
    • Buckminsterfullerene is a spherical structure that comprises 60 carbon atoms arranged as 10 hexagons and 12 pentagons.
    • It resembles the same shape as a football and hence C60 is also sometimes called a ‘buckyball’.
    • Its intermolecular forces are weak, which in turn lowers the melting point.

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