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Also called the ‘Monsoon Forests’, _______ are the most widespread in India.
1. Tropical evergreen forests
2. Tropical thorn forests and scrubs
3. Mangrove forests
4. Tropical deciduous forests

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Tropical deciduous forests

The correct answer is Tropical deciduous forest.

  • Tropical deciduous forests are also called monsoon forests because the trees in this forest shed their leaves during the dry season and re-grow during the monsoon.
  • Monsoon forests are especially well developed in Southeast Asia and are typified by tall teak trees and thickets of bamboo.

  • Tropical evergreen forests:
    • These forests are found in the western slope of the Western Ghats, hills of the northeastern region, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
    • They are found in warm and humid areas with annual precipitation of over 200 cm and a mean annual temperature above 220 degrees Celcius.
    • These trees reach a height up to 60 metres or above.
    • Tropical evergreen forests are well stratified, with layers closer to the ground and are covered with shrubs and creepers, with short structured trees followed by a tall variety of trees.
    • Such trees forests appear green all the year.
    • Species found in these forests include rosewood, mahogany, ebony etc.
  • Mangrove forests:
    • Mangroves are a group of trees and shrubs that live in the coastal intertidal zone.
    • There are about 80 different species of mangrove trees.
    • All of these trees grow in areas with low-oxygen soil, where slow-moving waters allow fine sediments to accumulate.
    • Mangrove forests only grow at tropical and subtropical latitudes near the equator because they cannot withstand freezing temperatures.
    • Mangrove forests stabilize the coastline, reducing erosion from storm surges, currents, waves, and tides. 
  • Tropical thorn forests and scrubs:
    • These types of forest are found in areas that receive less than 70 cm of rainfall.
    • The natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes.
    • This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of the country including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh.
    • Acacias, Palms, euphorbias and cacti are the main plant species.
    • Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil in order to get moisture.
    • The stems are succulent and thick to conserve water.
    • Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize evaporation.
    • In these forests, the common animals are rats, mice, rabbits fox, wolf, lion, tiger, camel etc.

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