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The process whereby certain minerals absorb water, expand and change is called as
1. Hydration
2. Oxidation
3. Hydrolysis
4. Carbonation

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : Hydration

The correct answer is hydration.

  • Minerals in rock can also react with water in a process called hydration.
  • Some minerals can absorb water into their structure, causing their volume to expand and put stress on the rock.
  • Over time, this chemical reaction can lead to a physical weakening of the rock.
  • Rocks can also be subjected to dissolution, the process by which a mineral completely dissolves in water. 

  • Like mechanical weathering, there are several different types of chemical weathering.
    • One type is oxidation, the reaction of oxygen with iron-bearing minerals in the rock.
    • In an oxidation reaction, the iron atom loses electrons and precipitates as another mineral. 
  • Chemical weathering can also result from exposure to water.
    • Hydrolysis occurs when silicate minerals react with water so that the mineral recombines with the water molecule to form a new mineral.
    • Potassium feldspar is a fairly common mineral and can be found in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.
    • When potassium feldspar reacts with slightly acidic water, it can be transformed into kaolinite, a clay mineral.
  • The limestone solution process is also known as carbonation.
    • Limestone is made of calcium carbonate.
    • When carbon dioxide is dissolved in rainwater, it makes a weak acid called carbonic acid.

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