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Which one of the following is not used as a raw material in the manufacture of glass?
1. Soda
2. Alumina
3. Borax
4. Gypsum

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Gypsum

The correct answer is gypsum.

  • Glass is formed when molten material is cooled so quickly that its constituent atoms do not have time to align themselves into an ordered lattice. 
  • Soda ash varies in density, size, and shape when mined and processed. 
    • This flexibility allows it to be used in a variety of everyday products like glass. 
    • Specifically, soda ash is used to make the most common type of glass, soda-lime silica glass.
    • It is used as the main ingredient because soda ash naturally reduces melting temperatures and its alkali effectively supports the shaping of the glass item. 
  • Alumina is used in glassmaking because of its superior mechanical and optical properties. 
    • Alumina can form glass if it is alloyed with calcium or rare-earth oxides.
    • But the required quenching rate can be as high as 1000 degrees per second, which makes it difficult to produce bulk quantities.
  • Glass manufacturers add borax to the silica base to:
    • significantly lower melting temperature and viscosity, inhibit crystallization of the glass, control thermal expansion, and inhibit devitrification.
    • The resulting products have inherent durability and chemical resistance and are tough enough to withstand considerable mechanical or thermal shock.

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