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Consider the following statement with respect to African swine fever :

1. It is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease in pigs.

2. It can affect both domestic and feral pigs.

3. It can cause fever and blood clotting in humans.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 2 only

1 Answer

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Best answer
Correct Answer - Option 1 : 1 and 2 only

The correct answer is 1 and 2 only.

  • African swine fever (ASF) : 
    • African swine fever is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease affecting both domestic and feral swine of all ages.
      • Hence statements 1 and 2 are correct.
    • ASF is not a threat to human health and cannot be transmitted from pigs to humans. It is not a food safety issue.
      • Hence statement 3 is incorrect.
    • ASF is found in countries around the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. More recently, it has spread through China, Mongolia and Vietnam, as well as within parts of the European Union. 
    • The disease has a case fatality rate (CFR) of almost 100 per cent.
    • Its routes of transmission include direct contact with an infected or wild pig (alive or dead), indirect contact through ingestion of contaminated material such as food waste, feed or garbage, or through biological vectors such as ticks. 
    • The disease is characterized by sudden deaths in pigs. Other manifestations of the disease include high fever, depression, anorexia, loss of appetite, haemorrhages in the skin, vomiting and diarrhoea among others.
    • It is important that the determination of ASF is made through laboratory testing and it is differentiated from Classical Swine Fever (CSF), whose signs may be similar to ASF, but is caused by a different virus for which a vaccine exists. 
    • Even so, while ASF is lethal, it is less infectious than other animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease.
    • But as of now, there is no approved vaccine, which is also a reason why animals are culled to prevent the spread of infection.

  • Classical swine fever - 
    • Classical swine fever (CSF), also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious multisystemic viral disease of swine that can run an acute, subacute, chronic, or late-onset course.
    • Swine can also be infected subclinically.
    • Domestic pigs, wild boar and feral pigs are the only animals susceptible to the classical swine fever virus (CSFV). 
    • Vaccination is available for CSF.

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