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The following procedures are used for cooling

1. Adiabatic expansion

2. Adiabatic demagnetization

3. Joule Thomson Effect

4. Evaporation

The correct sequence of temperature generating abilities from these processes is


1. 4123
2. 4132
3. 1423
4. 1432

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : 4132

Concept:

Adiabatic expansion:

  • When the temperature of the gas drops while keeping the pressure constant, it is said to be in the adiabatic expansion phase.  

  • An external work acts upon a system at the expense of utilizing the internal energy.

  • This results in lowering the temperature of the molecules of gas.

Adiabatic demagnetization:

  • The process by which the removal of a magnetic field from certain materials serves to lower their temperature.

  • Temperatures from 0.3 K to as low as 0.0015 K can be reached in this way. 

Joule–Thomson Effect:

  • By being throttled, the gas undergoes a pressure reduction and its temperature decreases. The phenomenon is called the Joule–Thomson effect.

  • It is an isenthalpic process, meaning that the enthalpy of the fluid is constant.

Evaporation: 

  • Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase.
  • In an open vessel, the liquid keeps on evaporating.
  • The particles of liquid absorb energy from the surrounding to regain the energy lost during evaporation.
  • This absorption of energy from the surroundings make the surroundings cold.

Explanation:

From the above discussion, we can see that

  • Evaporation is a process that occurs at nearly environmental temperature.
  • Therefore, cooling produce by this process is not too much. 
  • In the case of adiabatic demagnetisation, we can achieve temperature  0.3 K to as low as 0.0015 K.

Hence, from the given option, only the correct sequence is 4132.

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