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The gas used in the manufacture of Vanaspati Ghee from Vanaspati Oil is
1. Hydrogen
2. Oxygen
3. Nitrogen
4. Carbon dioxide
5. None of the above/More than one of the above

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : Hydrogen

The correct answer is Hydrogen.

  • The gas used in the manufacture of Vanaspati Ghee from Vanaspati Oil is Hydrogen.
  • At high pressure, in the presence of nickel catalyst, hydrogen is mixed with vegetable oils which turn them into vegetable ghee.
  • This process is called the hydrogenation of oils.
  • Hydrogen:
    • Hydrogen is the chemical element having the symbol H and atomic number 1.
    • With a norm atomic weight of 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table.
    • Hydrogen is the most copious chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.
    • Hydrogen gas is used by industry for refining petroleum, treating metals, producing fertilizer, and processing foods.

  • Oxygen:
    • Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8.
    • It is a part of the chalcogen group in the periodic table.
    • It is a highly reactive nonmetal and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.
    • It is also used to make epoxyethane (ethylene oxide), used as antifreeze and to make polyester, and chloroethene, the precursor to PVC.
    • Oxygen gas is used for oxy-acetylene welding and cutting of metals.
    • A growing use is in the treatment of sewage and of effluent from the industry.
  • Nitrogen:
    • Nitrogen (N), nonmetallic element of Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table.
    • It is a colourless, odourless, tasteless gas that is the most plentiful element in Earth’s atmosphere and is a constituent of all living matter.
    • Elemental nitrogen can be used as an inert atmosphere for reactions requiring the exclusion of oxygen and moisture.
    • In the liquid state, nitrogen has valuable cryogenic applications; except for the gases hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, fluorine, and oxygen, practically all chemical substances have negligible vapour pressures at the boiling point of nitrogen and exist, therefore, as crystalline solids at that temperature.
  • Carbon dioxide:
    • Carbon dioxide, (CO2), a colourless gas having a faint sharp odour and a sour taste.
    • It is one of the most important greenhouse gases linked to global warming, but it is a minor component of Earth’s atmosphere (about 3 volumes in 10,000), formed in the combustion of carbon-containing materials, in fermentation, and in respiration of animals and employed by plants in the photosynthesis of carbohydrates.
    • The presence of the gas in the atmosphere keeps some of the radiant energy received by Earth from being returned to space, thus producing the so-called greenhouse effect.
    • Industrially, it is recovered for numerous diverse applications from flue gases, as a by-product of the preparation of hydrogen for synthesis of ammonia, from limekilns, and from other sources.
    • Carbon dioxide is used as a refrigerant, in fire extinguishers, for inflating life rafts and life jackets, blasting coal, foaming rubber and plastics, promoting the growth of plants in greenhouses, immobilizing animals before slaughter, and in carbonated beverages.

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