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Which one of the following is an antibiotic drug?
1. Quinine
2. Sulphaguanidine
3. Chloramphenicol
4. Aspirin
5. None of the above/More than one of the above

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Chloramphenicol

The correct answer is Chloramphenicol.

  • Chloramphenicol:
    • Chloramphenicol, an antibiotic drug once commonly used in the treatment of infections caused by various bacteria, including those in the genera Rickettsia and Mycoplasma.
    • Chloramphenicol was originally found as a product of the metabolism of the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae (order Actinomycetales) and subsequently was synthesized chemically.
    • It achieves its antibacterial effect by interfering with protein synthesis in these microorganisms.
    • It is seldom used today, however, because of its potential toxicity and the availability of safer drugs.
    • Chloramphenicol has been important in the treatment of typhoid fever and other Salmonella infections.
    • For many years chloramphenicol, in combination with ampicillin, was the treatment of choice for Haemophilus influenzae infections, including meningitis.
    • Chloramphenicol is also useful in the treatment of pneumococcal or meningococcal meningitis in penicillin-allergic patients.

  • Quinine:
    • Quinine is a medication used in the treatment of malaria and babesiosis.
    • This includes the remedy of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum that obstructs chloroquine when artesunate is not available.
    • While sometimes used for disquieting legs syndrome, quinine is not recommended for this purpose due to the risk of serious side effects.
    • It can be inhaled by mouth or intravenously.
    • Malaria counteraction to quinine occurs in few areas of the world.
    • Quinine is also the element in tonic water that gives it its bitter taste.
  • Sulphaguanidine:
    • Sulfaguanidine is a guanidine derivative of sulfanilamide used in veterinary medicine.
    • Sulfaguanidine is poorly absorbed from the gut but is well suited for the treatment of bacillary dysentery and other enteric infections.
    • Sulfaguanidine is a sulfonamide incorporating a guanidine moiety used to block the synthesis of folic acid.
    • It is mostly used in veterinary medicine as a role of an antiinfective agent.
  • Aspirin:
    • Aspirin, also called acetylsalicylic acid, a derivative of salicylic acid that is a mild non-narcotic analgesic (pain reliever) useful in the relief of headache and muscle and joint aches.
    • Aspirin is effective in reducing fever, inflammation, and swelling and thus has been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, and mild infection.
    • In these instances, aspirin generally acts on the symptoms of disease and does not modify or shorten the duration of the disease.
    • However, because of its ability to inhibit the production of blood platelet aggregates (which may cut off the blood supply to regions of the heart or brain), aspirin has also been used as an anticoagulant in the treatment of conditions such as unstable angina or following a minor stroke or heart attack.

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