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The precursor of Indian National Congress was:
1. British Indian Association
2. Indian Association
3. The Indian National Union
4. Indian League
5. None of the above/More than one of the above

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Indian Association

The correct answer is Indian Association.

  • The precursor of the Indian National Congress was Indian Association.
  • Indian National Association:
    • The Indian Association was the first recognized nationalist organization founded in British India by Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose in 1876.
    • The objectives of this Association were "encouraging by every legitimate means the political, intellectual and material advancement of the people".
    • The Association fascinated educated Indians and civics leaders from all parts of the country.
    • It became a vital forum for India's aspirations for independence.
    • It later conjoined with the Indian National Congress.
  • Indian National Congress:
    • The Indian National Congress was founded in Bombay in December 1885.
    • The early leadership – Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta, Badruddin Tyabji, W.C. Bonnerji, Surendranath Banerji, Romesh Chandra Dutt, S. Subramania Iyer, among others – was largely from Bombay and Calcutta.
    • A retired British official, A.O. Hume, also played a part in bringing Indians from the various regions together.
    • The formation of the Indian National Congress was an effort in the direction of promoting the process of nation-building.
    • In an effort to reach all regions, it was decided to rotate the Congress session among different parts of the country.
    • The President belonged to a region other than where the Congress session was being held.

  • British Indian Association:
    • British Indian Association, was founded on October 29, 1851, at Calcutta with Raja Radha Kanta dev and Debendranath Tagore as its President and Secretary respectively.
    • Other members of the Association included Ramgopal Ghosh, Peary Chand Mitra and Krishnadas Pal.
    • Its membership was kept exclusive to Indians.
    • The object of the Association was 'to secure improvements in the local administration of the country and in the system of government laid down by Parliament'.
    • The Association gave leadership to remove the existing defects in the laws and civil administration of the country and to promote the greater welfare of the Indians.
    • In 1852 the Association sent a petition to Parliament 'relative to the East India Company's charter' fallen due to being renewed in 1853.
    • The Association informed parliament that Indians were not benefited by their connection with Great Britain 'to the extent they expected'.
  • Indian League:
    • The India League was a Britain-based organization whose aim was to campaign for full independence and self-government for India.
    • The activist, lawyer and editor V. K. Krishna Menon was the driving force behind it.
    • It evolved from the Commonwealth of India League (est. 1922) – which in turn evolved from Annie Besant’s Home Rule for India League.
    • Menon became joint secretary of the Commonwealth of India League in 1928 and radicalized the organization, rejecting its objective of Dominion Status for the greater goal of full independence and alienating figures such as Besant in the process.
    • It was in the early 1930s, with Menon at its helm, that the organization flourished, expanding into multiple branches across London and in a range of other British cities including Bournemouth, Birmingham, Bradford, Bristol, Cardiff, Dublin, Hull, Lancashire, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield, Southampton and Wolverhampton.

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