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Who was the Prime Minister of England when the Montague-Chelmsford Act was passed in 1919?
1. Lloyd George
2. George Hamilton
3. Sir Samuel Hoare
4. Lord Salisbury
5. None of the above/More than one of the above

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Correct Answer - Option 1 : Lloyd George

The correct answer is Lloyd George.

  • Lloyd George was the Prime Minister of England when the Montague-Chelmsford Act was passed in 1919.
  • Montague-Chelmsford Act:
    • The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or generally known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the colonial government in British India to start the self-governing institutions gradually in India.
    • The rectification takes their name from Edwin Montagu, the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of the First World War and Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921.
    • The improvements were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918 and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919.
    • These are concerned with constitutional reforms.
    • Indian nationalists pondered that the reforms did not go far enough while British conservatives were critical of them.
    • The vital features of this act were as follows:
    • 1. The Imperial Legislative Council will now contain two houses- the Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of State.
    • 2. The provinces were to adhere to the Dual Government System or Dyarchy.

  • George Hamilton:
    • George Hamilton was a Scottish physician who made significant contributions as a geographer, zoologist, and botanist while living in India.
    • He did not assume the name of Hamilton until three years after his retirement from India.
    • The standard botanical author abbreviation Buch.-Ham. is applied to plants and animals he described, though today the form "Hamilton, 1822" is more usually seen as ichthyology and is preferred by Fishbase.
  • Sir Samuel Hoare:
    • Sir Samuel Hoare, 2nd Baronet, also called (from 1944) Viscount Templewood of Chelsea.
    • He was a British statesman who was a chief architect of the Government of India Act of 1935 and, as foreign secretary (1935).
    • Samuel was criticized for his proposed settlement of Italian claims in Ethiopia (the Hoare–Laval Plan).
    • Hoare came back into the government in June 1936 as the first lord of the admiralty and then, in May 1937, under Neville Chamberlain, as home secretary.
  • Lord Salisbury:
    • Lord Salisbury was the last prime minister to run Britain from the House of Lords, for most of the period between June 1885 and his retirement in 1902.
    • He held the office altogether for close to fourteen years, which outdid Gladstone, and for most of that time, he was his own foreign secretary.
    • Salisbury was an imperialist, who presided over a massive expansion of the British Empire and who believed and did not hesitate to say that European, preferably British, rule was essential for the development of the world’s ‘backwards’ peoples to a point where they were fit to govern themselves.
    • He viewed Continental Europe with a wary eye and avoided long-term alliances and commitments.

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