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The value of G was first established by-
1. Isaac Newton
2. Pascal
3. Cavendish
4. Galileo

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Cavendish

The correct answer is option 3) i.e. Cavendish

CONCEPT:

  • Law of Universal Gravitation: It states that all objects attract each other with a force that is proportional to the masses of two objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates their centres.

It is given mathematically as follows:

\(F = \frac{Gm_1m_2}{R^2}\)

Where m1 and m2 are the mass of two objects, G is the gravitational constant and R is the distance between their centres.

  • The gravitational constant G establishes a relationship between gravitational force, mass, and distance.
    • The value of G is 6.67 × 10-11 N kg-2 m2.


EXPLANATION:

  • The value of G is obtained from Cavendish's experiment.
  • The Cavendish experiment is based on torsion balance to measure the weak gravitational force between lead balls.
  • The torsion balance consists of a bar suspended at its middle by a thin wire.
  • The twist of the wire is measured which is then incorporated in the force-torsion equation of the system to find the value of G.
  • So, the value of G was first established by Cavendish and it is universally accepted.

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